faith, we understand that the universe has been framed by the word
of God, so that what is seen has not been made out of things which
are visible.(Hebrews 11:3)
God As An Artist
But the LORD is the
true God, he is the living God, and an everlasting king: at his
wrath the earth shall tremble, and the nations shall not be able
to abide his indignation. Thus shall ye say unto them, The gods
that have not made the heavens and the earth, even they shall perish
from the earth, and from under these heavens. He hath made the
earth by his power, he hath established the world by his wisdom,
and hath stretched out the heavens by his discretion. (Jeremiah 10:12)
or Evolution? Created or Evolved?
Bible teaches that God created the universe and everything in it.
The theory of evolution teaches that man is the product of the
development of simple life forms into more complex ones by random
chance, very much like a machine building on itself. The theory
of evolution disposes of the need for an intelligent Creator or
That simpler life forms can become more complex life forms may be an appealing
theory but it does not have a leg to stand on. The following are
some major flaws in the theory of evolution:
1. Belief in evolution violates the First Law
of Thermodynamics, the law of energy conservation, which states
that energy can be converted from one form into another, but it
can neither be created or destroyed. Nothing in the present economy
of natural law can account for its own origin. The energy required
for innovative evolution, a fish developing legs and crawling out
of a primordial swamp, violates this inviolate law of physics.
The present structure of the universe is one of conservation. The
creationist model agrees with the Biblical world view that God
created the universe. Since God has ceased from his creative works
(Gen.2:3), energy is no longer created. The release of energy in
an atomic fission reaction is not a creation of energy but a change
of form from matter to energy.
2. Belief in evolution violates the Second Law
of Thermodynamics, the law of energy decay. The energy available
for useful work in a functioning system tends to decrease, even
though the total energy remains constant. Structured systems progress
from a more orderly, more complex, state to a less orderly, disorganized,
and random state. This process is known as "entropy". Theoretically in a rare, limited, and temporary situation a more orderly state
might result. But all systems move toward decay, according to this
law. Evolution is in direct violation of the second law of thermodynamics.
Evolutionists are aware of this and therefore require billions
of years of constant violations of the second law of thermodynamics.
Not only is evolution statistically highly improbable but virtually
3. Evolution violates the Law of Biogenesis that
life comes only from preexisting life and will only perpetuate
its own kind. Belief in evolution is essentially a belief in "spontaneous generation" where in one scenario life appeared when lightning struck a primordial soup
and somehow a living cell formed. Pasteur (1860), Spallanzani (1780),
and Redi (1688) disproved that maggots can come from rotten meat,
flies from banana peels, bees from dead calves (etc...). When the
decaying matter was sealed off and presterilized no life arose
as there was no biological contamination.
4. There is no evidence in the fossil record to
substantiate evolution. According to the general theory of evolution
the basic progression of life culminating in man was nonliving
matter, to protozoans, to metazoan invertebrates, to vertebrate
fishes, to amphibians, reptiles,birds, fur-bearing quadrupeds,
apes and man. If the theory of evolution were accurate we would
expect to find vast numbers of transitional forms objectively preserved
in the fossil record. Transitional forms are totally absent from
the fossil record. Archaeopteryx was once believed to be a transitional
form but has since been acknowledged by paleontologists to have
been a true bird. Evolutionists, cognizant of this glaring flaw
in their belief system, now argue that fossils are not present
because there were brief "evolutionary bursts" over billions of years which, because of their rapidity and brevity, did not
leave their footprint in time. Nevertheless, a belief in "evolutionary bursts" is still unsupported by the First and Second Law of Thermodynamics and the Law
5. The fossil record has failed to document a
single, verifiable "missing link" between ape and man. Compilations on skimpy and inaccurate evidence, highly
speculative constructs, and artists renderings abound but there
is no scientific evidence documenting a missing link. "Positive finds" of a missing link are periodically announced only to be subsequently embroiled
in controversy, revised, or disavowed. Nebraska man was constructed
based on the discovery in 1922 of a single tooth which was that
of an extinct species of pig.
In 1891 the Java ape man or Pithecanthropus erectus
(erect ape man) was reconstructed based on a small piece of the
top of a skull, a fragment of a left thighbone, and three molar
teeth. The remnants were collected over a range of seventy feet
and in an old riverbed mixed with the bones of extinct animals.
On scanty if no evidence with no proof that all the pieces found
were of the same animal a supposed missing link was found. Dr.
Eugene Dubois, a fervent evolutionist, later came to the conclusion
the bones were the remains of some type of gibbon, an ape.
In 1912 Charles Dawson, an amateur fossilologist
produced some bones, teeth and primitive instruments which he supposedly
found in a gravel pit at Piltdown, Sussex, England. In October
of 1956 Reader’s Digest published an article, summarized from Popular
Science Monthly , titled "The Great Piltdown Hoax." A new fluoride absorption method to date bones revealed the Piltdown bones were
fraudulent. The teeth had been filed and both teeth and bones had
been discolored with bichromate of potash to conceal their true
identity. All the "experts" had been deceived for over forty years.
For many years Neanderthal Man was considered
a missing link. He was portrayed as a semierect, barrel-chested,
hairy creature, most often with a club in hand. Other Neanderthal
skeletons revealed that Neanderthal Man was fully erect, fully
human, with a brain capacity exceeding that of modern man by 13
percent. It was concluded the initial specimen had been crippled
with osteoarthritis and rickets. Today Neanderthal Man is considered
Henry Morris in his well written book Creation
And The Modern Christian (Master Book Publishers, El Cajon, California,
1985) points out:
"If evolution were true, then the various
stages of human evolution ought to be the best documented of all,
since man is supposedly the most recent evolutionary arrival and
since more people are searching for fossil evidence in this field
than in any other. Nevertheless, as noted above, the actual evidence
is still extremely fragmentary and very doubtful. Exactly which
hominid fossils might be ancestors of man, as well as when and
in what order, are still matters of heated dispute even among evolutionary
He points out that the long-sought common ancestor
of man and the apes, especially of the "australopithecines" including the famous "Lucy", now seems to have turned up still living in the form of the pygmy chimpanzee
known as the "bonobo." The "bonobo" is an inhabitant of the Zaire jungles and is "almost identical in body size, in stature and in brain size" to Lucy, supposedly the oldest fossil hominid (
, February 5, 1983,
6. Evolution fails to explain the existence of
even a "simple cell." The simplest single cell organisms have in their genes and chromosomes as much
data as there are letters in the world’s largest libraries - a
trillion letters. There are hundred of thousands of genes in each
cell. Most life forms have billions of such complex cells in perfect
order. There is no way that random processes can organize such
massive data. The mathematical possibility of a human body being
formed accidentally is the same as that of an explosion in a print
shop forming a dictionary.
Sir Fred Hoyle, the originator of the "steady-state" theory
of the origin of the universe and an atheist, feels that the odds
against the chance formation of life on earth are so small that
it can be compared to the chance that "a tornado sweeping through a junkyard would assembly a Boeing 747 from the materials
therein" ("Hoyle on Evolution,"
, Vol. 294, Nov. 12, 1981, p.105). Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe,
a mathematical astronomer, calculated the probability that life
would arise spontaneously anywhere in a universe of 15 billion
light-years radius and at least 10 billion years old. They found
this probability less than one chance out of 1 with thirty zeroes
attached after it. Sir Fred Hoyle and Dr.Wickramasinghe have been
reluctantly driven to the conclusion that life must have been created
by a Higher Intelligence (a sort of pantheistic intelligence which
created spores somehow in other parts of the universe which were
caused to drift to earth) since it is far too complex to have risen
from natural processes.
Sir Fred Hoyle makes another colorful comparison
using a furry creature close to the hearts of evolutionists: "No matter how large the environment one considers, life cannot have had a random
beginning. Troops of monkeys thundering away at random on typewriter
keys could not produce the works of Shakespeare, for the practical
reason that the whole observable universe is not large enough to
contain the necessary monkey hordes, the necessary typewriters,
and certainly not the waste paper baskets required for the deposition
of wrong attempts. The same is true for living materials (p.148).
Men will go to great lengths to rationalize there
isn’t a personal Designer of the Universe who intelligently crafted
all life. Just from the general and cursory data provided on this
web site on the topic, it takes infinitely more faith to believe
in evolution than it does in an intelligent Creator. Evolution
is a theory with no scientific evidence to back it up. It is an
empty faith for those who don’t want to believe in God and should
be taught as religion, a religion which inspired Karl Marx to develop
his theory of class struggle and influenced Adolf Hitler with his
superior, evolved Aryan superman. Many were sacrificed to their
ruthless utopian, amoral visions. Evolution is a belief system
which looks at an unborn fetus as an animal embryo without a right
to life rather than the creation of God. As David wrote in Psalms
"For you created my inmost being;
You knit me together in my mother’s
Thank you for making me so wonderfully complex!
You were there while I was
being formed in utter seclusion!"
Uniquely Designed For Supporting Life:
earth was created by an intelligent Master Designer to support
1. The earth is positioned at just the right distance from the sun so that we
receive exactly the proper amount of heat to support life. The
other planets of our solar system are either too close to the sun
(too hot) or else too far (too cold) to sustain life.
2. Any appreciable change in the rate of rotation
of the earth would make life impossible. For example, if the earth
were to rotate at one tenth its present rate, all plant life would
either be burned to a crisp during the day or frozen at night.
3. Temperature variations are kept within reasonable
limits due to the nearly circular orbit of the earth around the
4. Temperature extremes are further moderated
by the water vapor and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that produce
a greenhouse effect.
5. The moon revolves around the earth at a distance
of about 240,000 miles causing harmless tides on the earth. If
the moon were located one fifth of this distance away, the continents
would be completely submerged twice a day.
6. The thickness of the earth’s crust and the
depth of the oceans appear to be carefully designed. Increases
in thickness or depth of only a few feet would so drastically alter
the absorption of free oxygen and carbon dioxide that plant and
animal life would not exist.
7. The earth’s axis is titled 23.5 degrees from
the perpendicular to the plane of its orbit. This tilting, combined
with the earth’s revolution around the sun, causes our seasons,
which are absolutely essential for the raising of food supplies.
8. The earth’s atmosphere (ozone layer) serves
as a protective shield from lethal solar ultraviolet radiation,
which would otherwise destroy all life.
9. The earth’s atmosphere also serves to protect
the earth from approximately 20 million meteors that enter it each
day at speeds of about 30 miles per second! Without this crucial
protection the danger to life would be immense.
10. The earth is the perfect physical size and
mass to support life, affording a careful balance between gravitation
forces (essential for holding water and an atmosphere) and atmospheric
11. The two primary constituents of the earth’s
atmosphere are nitrogen (78 percent) and oxygen (20 percent). This
delicate and critical ratio is essential to all life-forms.
12. The earth’s magnetic field provides important
protection from harmful cosmic radiation.
13. The earth is uniquely blessed with a bountiful
supply of water, which is the key substance of life due to its
remarkable and essential physical properties.
"Such numerous perfect and complex
combinations of interrelated conditions and factors essential to
delicate life-forms unequivocally point to intelligent purposeful
design. To believe that such an intricately planned and carefully
balanced life support system is the result of mere change is absolutely
senseless. Surely, the honest and objective observer has no other
recourse than to conclude that the earth-sun system has been carefully
and intelligently designed by God for man."(Huse, Scott M., The Collapse of Evolution )
"Since earliest times men have seen
the earth and sky and all God made, and have known of his existence
and great eternal power," (Living Bible. Romans 1:20).
Creation or Evolution , Zondervan
Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1971, pp.18-20.
Huse, Scott M. The Collapse of Evolution. Grand
Rapids: Baker Books, 1997, third edition.
Argument For God's Existence
Cosmological Argument - A First Cause
A. If something exists, there must exist what it takes for that thing to exist.
B. The universe exists.
C. There must exist what it takes for the Universe
D. What it takes for the Universe to exist cannot
exist within the Universe or be bounded by space and time.
E. Therefore, what it takes for the Universe
to exist must transcend both space and time.
Immanuel Kant, the famous Prussian philosopher
(1724-1804), justified his agnosticism with what he saw as the
following contradictions regarding time (A) and causality (B):
Thesis: The universe must have had a beginning,
otherwise an infinite number of moments passed by now. But this
is impossible, since an infinite cannot be traversed.
Antithesis: But the universe could not begin in
time, otherwise there was time before time began which is impossible.
Thesis: Not every cause has a cause, otherwise
the series would never begin which it has. So there must be a first
Antithesis: But the series cannot have a beginning,
since everything has a cause. So there cannot be a first cause.
With respect to Kant’s causation antinomy (paradox),
not everything needs a cause, only contingent or finite beings.
The Necessary or first or eternal Being does not need a cause.
Kant reasoned that an Infinite Being could be
reflected only in an infinite universe. How the universe came to
be is immaterial since it can’t be known through our senses (sensibility).
For Kant the universal properties which shape every appearance
of things before our mind are the apriori transcendental conditions
of appearance, which appear analogous to Plato’s Forms (Eidos)
or universals underlying physical appearances.
According to Kant, there are two conditions which
apply to every perception: space and time. Neither space or time
can be considered as a reality existing completely outside of us.
We don’t simply observe space or time as spectators. They are somehow
a part of our preprogrammed inner consciousness.
For Kant space must be presupposed. We can’t conceive
of space as existing outside of ourselves without presupposing
the very thing we’re trying to conceive. The original representation
of space is an apriori intuition. Space is a concept which exists
in our minds before experience. Time is not an empirical concept
which has been derived from any experience. Likewise time is a
concept which exists in our mind apriori before experience. Just
because we experience space and time on an empirical level does
not mean they are objectively real. They are part of the structure
of our consciousness not things which consciousness originally
discovers outside of itself. Kant expresses this by saying that
space and time are transcendentally ideal.
Kant’s concept of an infinite universe (one espoused
by Aquinas, who held that there was no reason why God Himself must
precede his own creation in time) is basically in accord with the
Steady State model of the universe which suggests an infinite universe,
a universe where the creation of matter is a act of nature, even
a law of nature, not a one-time miracle from outside nature. There
is a continual, spontaneous self creation of new matter. For Fred
Hoyle, one of the three British astrophysicists who invented the
Steady State model, “the Universe is everything”. Nothing can transcend
the realm of nature.
In the past three decades science using Einstein’s
theory of general relativity has refuted Kant’s view of space and
time, an infinite universe, by showing that space and time are
physical properties and as such are finite. These unknowable properties
or noumena as Kant labeled them have become empirical (observable
and as such measurable)
Universe Is Not Infinite:
Findings from the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite provided powerful
evidence that all matter, energy, space and time burst forth from
a state of infinite, or near infinite, density, temperature and
pressure. The entire universe can be traced to a singularity, an
infinitely shrunken space representing the boundary at which space
ceases to exist or at which space comes into existence.
The Big Bang theory maintains that all the potential
of the cosmos, some forty billion galaxies, ushered forth from
a point smaller than a proton, which was an empty quantum mechanical
probability framework called a scalar field. Furthermore this empty
point, a “false vacuum”, contained not only the potential one universe
but 100 million universes. As has so well been poetically described
by Gregg Easterbrook , if you believe in the Big Bang, “you believe
that, when the Big Bang sounded, the universe expanded from a pinpoint
to cosmological size in far less than one second – space itself
hurtling outward in a torrent of pure physics, the bow wave of
the new cosmos moving at trillions of times the speed of light.
You believe that this process unleashed such powerful distortions
that, for an instant, the hatchling universe was curved to a surreal
degree. Extreme curvature caused normally rare ‘virtual particles’
to materialize from the quantum netherworld in cornucopian numbers,
the stuff of existence being ‘created virtually out of nothing,’ as Scientific American once phrase it” (Gregg
Easterbrook, “Science Sees The Light”, the New Republic, October
Evidence For The Big Bang:
A. The Hubble expansion of the universe. Hubble
discovered a linear relation between the distance to a remote galaxy
and its redshift. In the early 1900’s astronomers observed that
the light from distant galaxies was shifted toward the longer,
or red, wavelengths of the spectrum interpreted as a rapid motion
of the galaxies away from one another. A blue shift would have
indicated that the galaxies were approaching one another.
B. In 1965 radio astronomers detected faint radio waves wherever
they pointed their radio telescopes. This confirmed the prediction
of George Gamow, Ralph
Alpher, and Robert Herman of the 1940s that if the universe were expanding
from a singularity a faint background radiation from that event of a few degrees
above absolute zero must exist everywhere in the sky. This signature for a
Big Bang model was further confirmed in 1992 and 1993 by the COBE satellite.
The COBE satellite demonstrated that the cosmic background radiation fits the
spectral profile of a perfect radiator to better than 0.03 percent precision
over the entire range of wavelengths and as such is half a billion times more
entropic (efficient at distributing energy) than a burning candle which has
a specific entropy of around 2. Only a very hot big bang can account for the
huge specific entropy of the universe. This put permanently to rest the concept
of a universe cyclically expanding and contracting. It proves that the universe
C. The verified predictions of light-element synthesis in the first minutes
of the Big Bang. The universal abundance of helium, remarkably constant from
galaxy to galaxy, testifies to a common cosmological origin. Deuterium is destroyed
in stars but not produced yet trace amounts of deuterium are observed throughout
the interstellar medium, as is an abundance of lithium, which are also indicative
of a common creation denominator.
Time Is A Physical Property With a Beginning:
In his special theory of relativity Einstein proposes
that the measure interval between two events depends on how the
observer is moving. Whenever two observers move relative to each
other time dilation occurs. Atomic clocks can record the shift
of time dilation at aircraft speed, which is only a few nanoseconds
in the typical journey. If an astronaut were to travel at close
to the speed of light to a nearby star and return back to earth
the astronaut may have traveled for only a year but upon the astronaut’s
return ten years would have elapsed on earth depending on the speed
Speed is one way to jump ahead of time and gravity
is another. In his general theory of relativity, Einstein predicted
that gravity slows time. Einstein’s theory was proven to the test
by Arthur Eddington when during World War I (May 29, 1919) he sent
an expedition to northern Brazil to measure the bending of light
from the Hyades cluster by the sun during a solar eclipse (David
Bodanis, “E=mc2”). Clocks run faster in the attic or in nearby
space than on the ground. The effect is miniscule but has been
measured by accurate clocks ( Paul Davies, “How To Build A Time
Machine”, Scientific American, September 2002, page 52).
The heavier a star the more time is slowed. On
the surface of a neutron star time is slowed by about 30 percent
relative to Earth time. On the surface of a black hole time stands
still relative to Earth. If you were to fall into a black hole
from nearby, in the rapid interval of time it would take you to
reach the surface, from the “event horizon” to the surface of the
singularity, all of eternity would have elapsed in the universe.
Science fiction stories regularly depict spaceships zooming close
to a black hole and being catapulted far into the future.
Einstein confessed that he was troubled by the
thought that his theory of relativity might permit travel into
the past under some circumstances. Quantum effects would be dominant
in time-traveling situations per the arguments of David Deutsch
(“The Fabric of Reality,” page 312) . “Typical candidate versions
of a quantum theory of gravity not only allow past-directed connections
to exist in the multiverse, they predict that such connections
are continually forming and breaking spontaneously. This is happening
throughout space and time, but only on a submicroscopic scale.
The typical pathway formed by these effects is about 10 –35th metres
across, remains open for one Planck time (about 10 –43rd seconds),
and therefore reaches only about one Planck time into the past.”
Perhaps the next generation of particle accelerators
will be able to create subatomic wormholes that survive long enough
for nearby particles to execute fleeting causal loops, but this
is doubtful in view of the tremendous energy expenditure required.
Traversable stable wormholes are for now strictly science fiction.
Based on general relativity, Hawking, Penrose,
and Ellis have presented a space-time “proposal” which postulates
that the dimensions of length, width, height, and time have existed
only as long as the universe has been expanding. Time really does
have a beginning according to this theorem.
Nevertheless, in “A Brief History of Time” Steven
Hawking is not quite certain if time has a beginning and may be
as such a Kantian “noumena.” He states: “With the success of scientific
theories in describing events, most people believe that God allows
the universe to evolve according to a set of laws and does not
intervene in the universe to break these laws. However, the laws
do not tell us what the universe should have looked like when it
started – it would still be up to God to wind up the clockwork
and choose how to start if off. So long as the universe had a beginning,
we would suppose it had a creator.
“Time” by definition is that realm or dimension
in which cause-and –effect phenomena occur (Hugh Ross, “The Creation
and the Cosmos”). “If time’s beginning is concurrent with the beginning
of the universe, as the space time theorem says, then the cause
of the universe must be some entity operating in a time dimension
completely independent of and preexistent to the time dimension
of the cosmos. The conclusion is powerfully important to our understanding
of who God is and who or what God isn’t. It tells us that the Creator
is transcendent, operating beyond the dimensional limits of the
universe. It tells us that God is not the universe itself, nor
is God contained within the universe. Pantheism and atheism do
not square up with the facts.”
Quantum Approach to Origin of Universe:
Hawking and Penrose proved that the classical
equations of General Relativity, “absolutely require that there
was a singularity at the birth of the Universe, a point at which
time began. There is no way around the singularity problem within
the framework of classical General Relativity. If singularities
are to be avoided in the real Universe, the only hope is to improve
relativity theory by bringing in the effects of quantum theory
and developing a quantum theory of gravity” (John Gribbin, “In
Search of The Big Bang – Quantum Physics and Cosmology”, chapter
on “A Seeker of Singularities”).
Solely using a quantum approach to explain the
origin of the universe is impossible to prove and is merely another
philosophical theorem rather than science. Quantum math may serve
to calculate how atoms and subatomic particles behave, but application
of quantum math to the entire universe is next to impossible since
quantum theory does not explain how a particle, or a system, gets
from State A to State B. According to the Copenhagen Interpretation
of quantum physics when we are not looking at a system it exists
in a superposition of all the possible states it could be in. However,
when we measure that system it is reduced to just one of its many
possible states. Just examining a system collapses the wave function
into a single state solely on the basis of probability. Then, when
we stop examining the system it again spreads out into a superposition
of all possible states. When we reexamine the system we will undoubtedly
be examining a different system as the odds are incredibly small
that the initial system measured will be replicated.
According to quantum theory, were we capable of
writing down the equations that describe the sub microscopic wave
functions of our universe (an impossible task), there would be
no observer, except God of course, outside of our universe to cause
it to collapse into one possible quantum state by the mere act
of observing it.
As scientific research becomes more metaphysical
in its attempt to explain the universe through a quantum approach,
some have embraced the “multiverse”. This notion examines the possibility
that if our universe emerged out of nothing, additional universes
may emerge from nothing as well. New universes may burst forth
in other dimensions a billion times a second. The theory of the
“multiverse” maintains that all outcomes become possible if the
deck is shuffled often enough including an occasional, life supporting
system such as ours. This theory is directed at explaining an autonomous,
natural cosmos where God is not necessary as a First Cause.
The problem with this the “multiverse” theory
is that since we exist in a definite universe in a specific time
space envelope, any other universe is strictly intellectual speculation
and impossible to prove from the established parameters of our
universe any more than a dot cannot prove the existence of a straight
line or a cube. The one dimensional dot can speculate about the
existence of a straight line but for the dot the line is a “noumena”,
Reconciling Relativity With Quantum Theory through Extra-Dimensionality
Black holes are massive objects which become so
highly collapsed that their gravity attracts anything within proximity,
powerful vacuum cleaners of near space. Certain very small black
holes known as “extremal” black holes become massless at critical
moments. How can this be possible in view of their extreme density
and how can they exert gravity without mass?
Andrew Strominger hypothesized that the answer
of their masslessness lies in their extra-dimensionality. “Strominger
discovered that in six spatial dimensions, the mass of an extremal
black hole is proportional to its surface area. As the surface
shrinks, the mass eventually becomes zero. The resolution works
given the existence of exactly six spatial dimensions” (Hugh Ross,
“Why I Believe In the Miracle of Divine Creation” from the apologetics
anthology “Why I Am A Christian” by Norman L. Geisler and Paul
K. Hoffman). “One theory solves the two great dilemmas. Here’s
what the theory tells us: The universe was created with ten rapidly
expanding space-time dimensions. When the universe was just 10
–43 seconds old, the movement when gravity separated from the strong-electroweak
force, six of these ten dimensions ceased to expand. Today, these
six dimensions still remain as a component of the universe, but
they are as tightly curled up as when the cosmos was only 10 –43
seconds old (editor’s note: “curled up space” is also labeled “Calabi-Yau space”). Their cross sections are only
10 –33 centimeters, so small as to be undetectable by direct measurement.”
“Six sets of evidences indicate that this theory
is correct. Perhaps the most convincing is that string theory produces,
as a bonus by-product, all the equations of special and general
relativity” and merges quantum mechanics.
The Bible can only be understood in an acceptance
of a supernatural, transcendent god outside the limitations of
the dimensions we are capable of visualizing and experiencing (length,
width, height, time). How else can we account for a spiritual life
after physical death, Jesus’s ability to walk on water, reversing
human illness, walking through walls in his resurrected body, hundreds
of accurate and fulfilled Biblical prophecies? How else can we
account for human free choice and divine predetermination, unless
the God of the universe were outside the time dimension and could
see the beginning and end of our lives including all our life decisions
in the same instance. A God transcending dimensionality is the
only explanation for the supernatural.
The Big Bang tells us that a few billion years
ago matter, energy, space, and time began from a singularity. Theologically
this means that the cause of the universe had to be outside and
independent of the universe, hence a Creator.
There was no place where the Big Bang occurred
as prior to the Big Bang space did not exist. Science is capable
of ascertaining when this happened from the red shift of the outermost
galaxies. Those outermost galaxies are observable records of conditions
at the time of the big bang. The images of these galaxies we now
see were transmitted 13.7 billion years ago at the dawn of creation.
Because of their distance and the speed of light only now are we
receiving these images. A red shift indicates they are receding
from an observer and a blue shift indicates they are approaching
Genesis1:1 states: “In the beginning God created
the heavens and the earth.” Note that the duration of the act of
creation is not given and a 13.7 billion year universe does not
contradict Genesis 1:1.
We cannot escape the necessity of a First Cause,
whether we attribute our universe to a singularity or to the existence
of multiverses. Perhaps there do exist multiverses but the question
must nevertheless be asked, “How did they come into being?” Perhaps
a more appropriate question is “How big is your God?” Is he the
God of infinite potential or merely an idol three dimensionally
limited to a cellular structure of stone and wood? Is he a God
who can reveal himself to us by taking the form of a man “to die
on a cross of wood even though he created the hill on which it
Accepting the existence of personal God is a decision
which we have to reach using both our hearts and minds as the mind
cannot always find a reason, however unjustified, not to accept
the existence of a Creator, a First Cause, an omnipotent, omnipresent
God. In our intellectual conceit we can always find a reason which
we naively believe precludes the existence of God only to find
God waiting for us just beyond the limits of our understanding,
patiently waiting for our heart and consciousness to expand and
acknowledge him. When Renaissance man realized the earth was round
instead of flat many ceased to believe in God even though the Book
of Isaiah written around 700 B.C. clearly tells us the earth is
“He sits enthroned above the circle of the earth,
and its people are like grasshoppers” (Isaiah 40:22).
A little further down Isaiah 40:26-28 continues:
“Lift your eyes and look to the heavens: Who created
all these? He who brings out the starry host one by one, and calls
them each by name. Because of his great power and mighty strength,
not one of them is missing ….. Do you not know? Have you not heard?
The Lord is the everlasting God, the Creator of the ends of the
earth. He will not grow tired or weary, and his understanding no
one can fathom.”
In our pride we gain a little knowledge and now
we think we are wise enough to disprove God’s existence only to
find God waiting just beyond our limited intellectual horizon.
As the Psalmist in the 139th psalm so aptly states:
“Where can I go from your Spirit? Where can I
flee from your presence? If I go up to the heavens, you are there;
if I make my bed in the depths (of the sea), you are there.”
The Bible is not limited in understanding. However
our minds are limited in understanding. Science merely uncovers
new panoramas of increasing complexity, all adorned with God’s
fingerprints. True science attests to the existence of a Superhuman
Infinite Mind, that of a Master Designer.
of God in the Creation of the Universe
sun is crucial to life on earth, yet the existence of the sun and
that of stars, which are mostly collapsing hydrogen atoms, in general
is miraculous. The odds of stars and the forces which govern them
occurring accidentally is virtually impossible. For stars to exist
the following forces must exist:
A weak gravitational force
necessary for the universe to exist as it is:
The strength by which any particle is affected
by gravity is proportional to its mass. The actual force between
two bodies is given by multiplying the two masses together, and
multiplying the result times a universal constant whose fantastic
smallness is one of the mysteries associated with the parameters
of particle physics. This gravitational constant has a mass of
about ten to the minus thirty eighth (10 –38th) power and represents
the gravitational force between two protons.
Gravity is a weak force yet plays an important
role on earth and space. Stellar bodies are composed of enormous
numbers of particles and the tiny gravitational attraction of each
particle has an important cumulative effect. Stars cannot exist
without a weak gravitational constant. The weaker the gravity,
the more protons must be piled on one another so that the pressure
at the center can ignite a nuclear reaction. Because the gravitational
constant is tiny, stars need to be so huge and because the stars
are so large they can burn for “billions” of years.
If the gravitational force were stronger than
it is, stars would be much smaller and burn out faster.
2) Neutron, protons, and electrons are just the
right size for nuclear and atomic (quantum) physics:
The neutron is just slightly heavier than the
proton by about two parts in a thousand. The electron is eighteen
hundred times lighter than the proton, but mysteriously enough
the electron mass is just about the difference by which a neutron
is more massive than a proton. Without this differential in masses
it would be impossible for nuclei to stick together to form stable
nuclei. Without stable nuclei the world as we know it would not
3) The intrinsic density of mass and energy of
A volume of empty space has mass allowed per Einstein’s
general theory of relativity. This mass is a cosmological constant
which measures an intrinsic density of mass and energy. If this
constant were sizable the universe would contract and collapse
gravitationally similar to a black hole or a dead star imploding.
For this not to happen the cosmological constant must be no larger
in proton mass than about ten to the minus fortieth (10 –40th)
power. A higher constant would result in a short lived universe
where no stars are formed.
Radiating light from stars allows them to get
rid of the energy they produce to keep them from exploding. Light
is an aspect of electromagnetism. The electrical force between
two fundamental particles is much stronger than their gravitational
attraction. The strength of the electrical interaction is measured
by a number called alpha, which is the measure of the electric
force between two protons or electrons and has a value of approximately
1/137. This is a constant which allows stars to radiate light.
Scientists for the whole of the twentieth century have been trying
to figure out why alpha is set at this necessary constant with
no explanation, except for intelligent engineering.
5) Strong nuclear force:
Like charges repel. Protons are of like charge
and most atoms contain numerous protons packed closely together.
Therefore atoms should blow apart unless yet another force holds
them together, a force more powerful than gravity or electricity.
This force must be strong enough to hold the atomic nuclei together
but not so strong as to inhibit a star’s chain reactions of nuclear
reactions. This force must also be short-ranged so as not to bind
electrons, protons and neutrons together into one big nucleus and
rendering impossible any chemical reactions. Such a force exists.
It is called a strong nuclear force and exerts its influence at
approximately a range of an atomic nucleus.
6) Weak nuclear force:
Another necessary force is called the weak nuclear
interaction. This force is too weak to bind but it governs the
basic nuclear reaction in the physics of stars by which an electron
and a proton are transformed into a neutron and a neutrino.
The above data was resourced from Lee Smolin in
“The Life of the Cosmos” (Oxford University Press, 1997). Lee Smolin
states in the discussion he calls “The Miracle of Stars”:
“If we are to genuinely understand our universe,
these relations between the structures on large scales and the
elementary particles must be understood as something other than
coincidence. We must understand how it came to be that the parameters
that govern the elementary particles and their interactions are
tuned and balanced in such a way that a universe of such variety
and complexity arises.
Of course, it is always possible that this is
just coincidence. Perhaps before going further we should ask just
how probable is it that a universe created by randomly choosing
the parameters will contain stars. Given what we have already said,
it is simple to estimate this probability…. The answer, in round
numbers, comes to about one chance in ten to the two hundred twenty
ninth (10 - 229th) power.”
Creationist Genesis Bible Images
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